Leafy branch representing clean environmentChemistry beakers and flasks filled with colored liquidsTrees in an old growth mountainside forestView of snow-capped mountain rangeChemistry lab beakers and test tubesScene of a mountain lake reflecting the trees and clouds       Home | Hazardous Substances | Preventing Chemical Injury | New Treatment for Chemical Injury | Medical Care Environmental Controls | Chemical Updates | "Corporate Crime" | Media and Video | About Dr. Grace Ziem | Search

Pg. 12, Medical References (footnotes)--Neural Sensitization: The Medical Key To Treatment

1. Beckman JS, Crow JP. Pathological implications of nitric oxide, superoxide and peroxynitrite formation. Biochemical Society transactions. May 1993;21(2):330-334.

2. Beckman JS. The double-edged role of nitric oxide in brain function and superoxide-mediated injury. Journal of developmental physiology. Jan 1991;15(1):53-59.

3. Delfino RJ, Staimer N, Gillen D, et al. Personal and ambient air pollution is associated with increased exhaled nitric oxide in children with asthma. Environmental health perspectives. Nov 2006;114(11):1736-1743.

4. Mar TF, Jansen K, Shepherd K, Lumley T, Larson TV, Koenig JQ. Exhaled nitric oxide in children with asthma and short-term PM2.5 exposure in Seattle. Environmental health perspectives. Dec 2005;113(12):1791-1794.

5. Gregersen P, Klausen H, Elsnab CU. Chronic toxic encephalopathy in solvent-exposed painters in Denmark 1976-1980: clinical cases and social consequences after a 5-year follow-up. American journal of industrial medicine. 1987;11(4):399-417.

6. Brown GC. Nitric oxide and neuronal death. Nitric Oxide. Nov 1 2010;23(3):153-165.

7. Miyamoto K, Nakanishi H, Moriguchi S, et al. Involvement of enhanced sensitivity of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in vulnerability of developing cortical neurons to methylmercury neurotoxicity. Brain research. May 18 2001;901(1-2):252-258.

8. Lafon-Cazal M, Culcasi M, Gaven F, Pietri S, Bockaert J. Nitric oxide, superoxide and peroxynitrite: putative mediators of NMDA-induced cell death in cerebellar granule cells. Neuropharmacology. Nov 1993;32(11):1259-1266.

9. Brown GC, Bal-Price A. Inflammatory neurodegeneration mediated by nitric oxide, glutamate, and mitochondria. Molecular neurobiology. Jun 2003;27(3):325-355.

10. Dawson VL. Nitric oxide: role in neurotoxicity. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. Apr 1995;22(4):305-308.

11. Hammer B, Parker WD, Jr., Bennett JP, Jr. NMDA receptors increase OH radicals in vivo by using nitric oxide synthase and protein kinase C. Neuroreport. Oct 25 1993;5(1):72-74.

12. Leist M, Fava E, Montecucco C, Nicotera P. Peroxynitrite and nitric oxide donors induce neuronal apoptosis by eliciting autocrine excitotoxicity. The European journal of neuroscience. Jul 1997;9(7):1488-1498.

13. Moncada S, Bolanos JP. Nitric oxide, cell bioenergetics and neurodegeneration. Journal of neurochemistry. Jun 2006;97(6):1676-1689.

14. Machlin LJ, Bendich A. Free radical tissue damage: protective role of antioxidant nutrients. FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Dec 1987;1(6):441-445.

15. Principals of Neurotoxicity Risk Assessment. In: US EPA FRA, 1994, ed1994.

16. Haley JE, Sullivan AF, Dickenson AH. Evidence for spinal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor involvement in prolonged chemical nociception in the rat. Brain research. Jun 4 1990;518(1-2):218-226.

17. Reynolds IJ, Hastings TG. Glutamate induces the production of reactive oxygen species in cultured forebrain neurons following NMDA receptor activation. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. May 1995;15(5 Pt 1):3318-3327.

18. Klaassen C, ed Casarett & Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons. 6th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2001.

19. Wolak M, Zahl A, Schneppensieper T, Stochel G, van Eldik R. Kinetics and mechanism of the reversible binding of nitric oxide to reduced cobalamin B(12r) (Cob(II)alamin). Journal of the American Chemical Society. Oct 10 2001;123(40):9780-9791.

20. Zheng D, Yan L, Birke RL. Electrochemical and spectral studies of the reactions of aquocobalamin with nitric oxide and nitrite ion. Inorganic chemistry. May 6 2002;41(9):2548-2555.

21. Khatsenko OG, Gross SS, Rifkind AB, Vane JR. Nitric oxide is a mediator of the decrease in cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism caused by immunostimulants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Dec 1 1993;90(23):11147-11151.

22. Ziem G. Profile of Patients with Chemical Injury and Sensitivity, Part II. International Journal of Toxicology. 1999;18(6):401-409.

23. Ozguner F, Altinbas A, Ozaydin M, et al. Mobile phone-induced myocardial oxidative stress: protection by a novel antioxidant agent caffeic acid phenethyl ester. Toxicology and industrial health. Oct 2005;21(9):223-230.

24. Linder MC, ed Nutritional Biochemistry and Metabolism with Clinical Applications. 2nd ed. East Norwich, CT: Appleton and Lange; 1991.

25. Lafon-Cazal M, Pietri S, Culcasi M, Bockaert J. NMDA-dependent superoxide production and neurotoxicity. Nature. Aug 5 1993;364(6437):535-537.

26. Coyle JT, Puttfarcken P. Oxidative stress, glutamate, and neurodegenerative disorders. Science. Oct 29 1993;262(5134):689-695.

27. Sun AY, Chen YM. Oxidative stress and neurodegenerative disorders. Journal of biomedical science. Nov-Dec 1998;5(6):401-414.

28. Mayhan WG. Nitric oxide donor-induced increase in permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Brain research. Jun 2 2000;866(1-2):101-108.

29. Albensi BC. Models of brain injury and alterations in synaptic plasticity. Journal of neuroscience research. Aug 15 2001;65(4):279-283.

30. Dawson VL, Dawson TM. Nitric oxide neurotoxicity. Journal of chemical neuroanatomy. Jun 1996;10(3-4):179-190.

31. Doble A. The role of excitotoxicity in neurodegenerative disease: implications for therapy. Pharmacology & therapeutics. Mar 1999;81(3):163-221.

32. Schulz JB, Matthews RT, Klockgether T, Dichgans J, Beal MF. The role of mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal nitric oxide in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. Molecular and cellular biochemistry. Sep 1997;174(1-2):193-197.

33. Christen S, Woodall AA, Shigenaga MK, Southwell-Keely PT, Duncan MW, Ames BN. Gamma-tocopherol traps mutagenic electrophiles such as NO(X) and complements alpha-tocopherol: physiological implication. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Apr 1 1997;94(7):3217-3222.

34. Wagner KH, Kamal-Eldin A, Elmadfa I. Gamma-tocopherol--an underestimated vitamin? Annals of nutrition & metabolism. 2004;48(3):169-188.

35. Bishop C, Hudson VM, Hilton SC, Wilde C. A pilot study of the effect of inhaled buffered reduced glutathione on the clinical status of patients with cystic fibrosis. Chest. Jan 2005;127(1):308-317.

36. Oja SS, Janaky R, Varga V, Saransaari P. Modulation of glutamate receptor functions by glutathione. Neurochemistry international. Aug-Sep 2000;37(2-3):299-306.

37. Testa B, Mesolella M, Testa D, et al. Glutathione in the upper respiratory tract. The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology. Feb 1995;104(2):117-119.

38. Costa DL. Air Pollution. In: Klaassen CD, ed. Casarett & Doull's Toxicology. 6th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2001:1003.

39. Smith AR, Shenvi SV, Widlansky M, Suh JH, Hagen TM. Lipoic acid as a potential therapy for chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress. Current medicinal chemistry. May 2004;11(9):1135-1146.

40. Wagner AE, Ernst IM, Birringer M, Sancak O, Barella L, Rimbach G. A combination of lipoic acid plus coenzyme Q10 induces PGC1alpha, a master switch of energy metabolism, improves stress response, and increases cellular glutathione levels in cultured C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity. 2012;2012:835970.

41. Jayaprakash K. Mercury vapor inhalation and its effect on glutathione peroxidase in goldsmiths exposed occupationally. Toxicology and industrial health. Aug 2009;25(7):463-465.

42. Rotruck JT, Pope AL, Ganther HE, Swanson AB, Hafeman DG, Hoekstra WG. Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science. Feb 9 1973;179(4073):588-590.

43. Hustad S, McKinley MC, McNulty H, et al. Riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide in human plasma and erythrocytes at baseline and after low-dose riboflavin supplementation. Clinical chemistry. Sep 2002;48(9):1571-1577.

44. Prentice AM, Bates CJ. A biochemical evaluation of the erythrocyte glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) test for riboflavin status. 2. Dose-response relationships in chronic marginal deficiency. The British journal of nutrition. Jan 1981;45(1):53-65.

45. Fukai T, Ushio-Fukai M. Superoxide dismutases: role in redox signaling, vascular function, and diseases. Antioxidants & redox signaling. Sep 15 2011;15(6):1583-1606.

46. Gregus Z, Klaassen CD. Mechanisms of toxicity. In: Klaassen CD, ed. Casarett & Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons. 6th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2001:35-81.

47. Pryor WA, Squadrito GL. The chemistry of peroxynitrite: a product from the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide. The American journal of physiology. May 1995;268(5 Pt 1):L699-722.

48. Novelli A, Reilly JA, Lysko PG, Henneberry RC. Glutamate becomes neurotoxic via the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor when intracellular energy levels are reduced. Brain research. Jun 7 1988;451(1-2):205-212.

49. Hayakawa M, Hattori K, Sugiyama S, Ozawa T. Age-associated oxygen damage and mutations in mitochondrial DNA in human hearts. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. Dec 15 1992;189(2):979-985.

50. Chou CY, Tong L. Structural and biochemical studies on the regulation of biotin carboxylase by substrate inhibition and dimerization. The Journal of biological chemistry. Jul 8 2011;286(27):24417-24425.

51. Depeint F, Bruce WR, Shangari N, Mehta R, O'Brien PJ. Mitochondrial function and toxicity: role of the B vitamin family on mitochondrial energy metabolism. Chemico-biological interactions. Oct 27 2006;163(1-2):94-112.

52. Tong L. Structure and function of biotin-dependent carboxylases. Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS. Aug 7 2012.

53. Tong S, Chu C, Wei Y, et al. Preparation and effects of 2,3-dehydrosilymarin, a promising and potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger. The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology. Feb 2011;63(2):238-244.

54. Lee JH, Jarreau T, Prasad A, Lavie C, O'Keefe J, Ventura H. Nutritional assessment in heart failure patients. Congestive heart failure (Greenwich, Conn.). Jul-Aug 2011;17(4):199-203.

55. Beg S, Javed S, Kohli K. Bioavailability enhancement of coenzyme Q10: an extensive review of patents. Recent patents on drug delivery & formulation. Nov 2010;4(3):245-255.

56. Tsai KL, Huang YH, Kao CL, et al. A novel mechanism of coenzyme Q10 protects against human endothelial cells from oxidative stress-induced injury by modulating NO-related pathways. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry. May 2012;23(5):458-468.

57. Liu J, Head E, Kuratsune H, Cotman CW, Ames BN. Comparison of the effects of L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine on carnitine levels, ambulatory activity, and oxidative stress biomarkers in the brain of old rats. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Nov 2004;1033:117-131.

58. Ozaki K, Sano T, Tsuji N, Matsuura T, Narama I. Carnitine is necessary to maintain the phenotype and function of brown adipose tissue. Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology. May 2011;91(5):704-710.

59. Patel SP, Sullivan PG, Lyttle TS, Magnuson DS, Rabchevsky AG. Acetyl-L-carnitine treatment following spinal cord injury improves mitochondrial function correlated with remarkable tissue sparing and functional recovery. Neuroscience. May 17 2012;210:296-307.

60. Pesce V, Nicassio L, Fracasso F, Musicco C, Cantatore P, Gadaleta MN. Acetyl-L-carnitine activates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivators PGC-1alpha/PGC-1beta-dependent signaling cascade of mitochondrial biogenesis and decreases the oxidized peroxiredoxins content in old rat liver. Rejuvenation research. Apr 2012;15(2):136-139.

61. Fedor D, Kelley DS. Prevention of insulin resistance by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care. Mar 2009;12(2):138-146.

62. Siriwardhana N, Kalupahana NS, Moustaid-Moussa N. Health Benefits of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid. Advances in food and nutrition research. 2012;65:211-222.

63. Gunasekar PG, Kanthasamy AG, Borowitz JL, Isom GE. NMDA receptor activation produces concurrent generation of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species: implication for cell death. Journal of neurochemistry. Nov 1995;65(5):2016-2021.

64. Scott GS, Bowman SR, Smith T, Flower RJ, Bolton C. Glutamate-stimulated peroxynitrite production in a brain-derived endothelial cell line is dependent on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation. Biochem Pharmacol. Jan 15 2007;73(2):228-236.

65. Akhtar MI, Ullah H, Hamid M. Magnesium, a drug of diverse use. JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association. Dec 2011;61(12):1220-1225.

66. Miyashita T, Oda Y, Horiuchi J, Yin JC, Morimoto T, Saitoe M. Mg(2+) block of Drosophila NMDA receptors is required for long-term memory formation and CREB-dependent gene expression. Neuron. Jun 7 2012;74(5):887-898.

67. Nikolaev MV, Magazanik LG, Tikhonov DB. Influence of external magnesium ions on the NMDA receptor channel block by different types of organic cations. Neuropharmacology. Apr 2012;62(5-6):2078-2085.

68. Yoo DY, Kim W, Kim DW, et al. Pyridoxine enhances cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation by upregulating the GABAergic system in the mouse dentate gyrus. Neurochemical research. May 2011;36(5):713-721.

69. Gallos G, Yim P, Chang S, et al. Targeting the restricted alpha-subunit repertoire of airway smooth muscle GABAA receptors augments airway smooth muscle relaxation. American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology. Jan 15 2012;302(2):L248-256.

70. Song NY, Shi HB, Li CY, Yin SK. Interaction between taurine and GABA(A)/glycine receptors in neurons of the rat anteroventral cochlear nucleus. Brain research. Sep 7 2012;1472:1-10.

71. Willis WD. Role of neurotransmitters in sensitization of pain responses. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Mar 2001;933:142-156.

72. McMahon SB, Lewin GR, Wall PD. Central hyperexcitability triggered by noxious inputs. Curr Opin Neurobiol. Aug 1993;3(4):602-610.

73. Ziem G. Evaluation and Treatment of Patients with Chemcial Injury and Sensitivity, Invited presentation to conference sponsored by National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Aug 2001.

74. Roehm JN, Hadley JG, Menzel DB. The influence of vitamin E on the lung fatty acids of rats exposed to ozone. Archives of environmental health. Apr 1972;24(4):237-242.

75. Sprince H, Parker CM, Smith GG. Comparison of protection by L-ascorbic acid, L-cysteine, and adrenergic-blocking agents against acetaldehyde, acrolein, and formaldehyde toxicity: implications in smoking. Agents and actions. Oct 1979;9(4):407-414.

76. Pascoe GA, Fariss MW, Olafsdottir K, Reed DJ. A role of vitamin E in protection against cell injury. Maintenance of intracellular glutathione precursors and biosynthesis. European journal of biochemistry / FEBS. Jul 1 1987;166(1):241-247.

77. Ziem G. Endocrine Changes in Patients with Chronic Illness Following Chemcial Overexposure: Invited presentation at Conference on Chemical Injury. October 3, 2003; Fairfax, VA.

78. Uversky VN. Neurotoxicant-induced animal models of Parkinson's disease: understanding the role of rotenone, maneb and paraquat in neurodegeneration. Cell and tissue research. Oct 2004;318(1):225-241.

79. Thiruchelvam M, Richfield EK, Goodman BM, Baggs RB, Cory-Slechta DA. Developmental exposure to the pesticides paraquat and maneb and the Parkinson's disease phenotype. Neurotoxicology. Oct 2002;23(4-5):621-633.

80. Kamel F, Hoppin JA. Association of pesticide exposure with neurologic dysfunction and disease. Environmental health perspectives. Jun 2004;112(9):950-958.

81. Wu A, Liu Y. Prolonged expression of c-Fos and c-Jun in the cerebral cortex of rats after deltamethrin treatment. Brain research. Molecular brain research. Jan 31 2003;110(1):147-151.

82. Beirith A, Santos AR, Rodrigues AL, Creczynski-Pasa TB, Calixto JB. Spinal and supraspinal antinociceptive action of dipyrone in formalin, capsaicin and glutamate tests. Study of the mechanism of action. European journal of pharmacology. Mar 26 1998;345(3):233-245.

83. Palazzo E, de Novellis V, Marabese I, et al. Interaction between vanilloid and glutamate receptors in the central modulation of nociception. European journal of pharmacology. Mar 29 2002;439(1-3):69-75.

84. Kimata H. Effect of exposure to volatile organic compounds on plasma levels of neuropeptides, nerve growth factor and histamine in patients with self-reported multiple chemical sensitivity. International journal of hygiene and environmental health. Feb 2004;207(2):159-163.

85. Meggs WJ. RADS and RUDS--the toxic induction of asthma and rhinitis. Journal of toxicology. Clinical toxicology. 1994;32(5):487-501.

86. Garbe T, Yukawa H. Common solvent toxicity: autoxidation of respiratory redox-cyclers enforced by membrane derangement. Z Naturforsch. 2001;56c:483-491.

87. Mattia CJ, Ali SF, Bondy SC. Toluene-induced oxidative stress in several brain regions and other organs. Molecular and chemical neuropathology / sponsored by the International Society for Neurochemistry and the World Federation of Neurology and research groups on neurochemistry and cerebrospinal fluid. Apr 1993;18(3):313-328.

88. Rogers WR, Miller CS, Bunegin L. A rat model of neurobehavioral sensitization to toluene. Toxicology and industrial health. Apr-Jun 1999;15(3-4):356-369.

89. Thom SR, Fisher D, Zhang J, Bhopale VM, Cameron B, Buerk DG. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-D-aspartate neurons in experimental carbon monoxide poisoning. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. Feb 1 2004;194(3):280-295.

90. Lenga R, ed Sigma-Aldrich Library of Chemical Safety Data. Milwaukee, WI: Sigma-Aldrich Corp.; 1988.

91. Adar SD, Adamkiewicz G, Gold DR, Schwartz J, Coull BA, Suh H. Ambient and microenvironmental particles and exhaled nitric oxide before and after a group bus trip. Environmental health perspectives. Apr 2007;115(4):507-512.

92. Barraza-Villarreal A, Sunyer J, Hernandez-Cadena L, et al. Air pollution, airway inflammation, and lung function in a cohort study of Mexico City schoolchildren. Environmental health perspectives. Jun 2008;116(6):832-838.

93. Tarantini L, Bonzini M, Apostoli P, et al. Effects of particulate matter on genomic DNA methylation content and iNOS promoter methylation. Environmental health perspectives. Feb 2009;117(2):217-222.

94. Lee DH, Jacobs DR, Jr., Porta M. Hypothesis: a unifying mechanism for nutrition and chemicals as lifelong modulators of DNA hypomethylation. Environmental health perspectives. Dec 2009;117(12):1799-1802.

95. Yamada K, Yamada S, Tobimatsu T, Toraya T. Heterologous high level expression, purification, and enzymological properties of recombinant rat cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase. The Journal of biological chemistry. Dec 10 1999;274(50):35571-35576.

96. van Asselt DZ, Merkus FW, Russel FG, Hoefnagels WH. Nasal absorption of hydroxocobalamin in healthy elderly adults. British journal of clinical pharmacology. Jan 1998;45(1):83-86.

97. Slot WB, Merkus FW, Van Deventer SJ, Tytgat GN. Normalization of plasma vitamin B12 concentration by intranasal hydroxocobalamin in vitamin B12-deficient patients. Gastroenterology. Aug 1997;113(2):430-433.

98. van der Kuy PH, Merkus FW, Lohman JJ, ter Berg JW, Hooymans PM. Hydroxocobalamin, a nitric oxide scavenger, in the prophylaxis of migraine: an open, pilot study. Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache. Sep 2002;22(7):513-519.

99. Mischley L. Glutathione Deficiency in Parkinson's Disease: Intranasal Administration as a Method of Augumentation. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine. 2011;26:32-36.

100. Stanger O, Weger M. Interactions of homocysteine, nitric oxide, folate and radicals in the progressively damaged endothelium. Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine : CCLM / FESCC. Nov 2003;41(11):1444-1454.

101. Fletcher BL, Tappel AL. Protective effects of dietary -tocopherol in rats exposed to toxic levels of ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Environmental research. Jun 1973;6(2):165-175.

102. Giovannucci E. Gamma-tocopherol: a new player in prostate cancer prevention? Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Dec 20 2000;92(24):1966-1967.

103. Parkinson A. Biotransformation of xenobiotics. In: Klaassen CD, ed. Casarett & Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons. 6th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2001:213-218.

104. Watson WP, Munter T, Golding BT. A new role for glutathione: protection of vitamin B12 from depletion by xenobiotics. Chemical research in toxicology. Dec 2004;17(12):1562-1567.

105. Prousky J. The treatment of pulmonary diseases and respiratory-related conditions with inhaled (nebulized or aerosolized) glutathione. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM. Mar 2008;5(1):27-35.

106. Buhl R, Meyer A, Vogelmeier C. Oxidant-protease interaction in the lung. Prospects for antioxidant therapy. Chest. Dec 1996;110(6 Suppl):267S-272S.

107. Klotz LO, Sies H. Defenses against peroxynitrite: selenocompounds and flavonoids. Toxicology letters. Apr 11 2003;140-141:125-132.

108. Busse E, Zimmer G, Schopohl B, Kornhuber B. Influence of alpha-lipoic acid on intracellular glutathione in vitro and in vivo. Arzneimittel-Forschung. Jun 1992;42(6):829-831.

109. Konrad T, Vicini P, Kusterer K, et al. Alpha-Lipoic acid treatment decreases serum lactate and pyruvate concentrations and improves glucose effectiveness in lean and obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes care. Feb 1999;22(2):280-287.

110. Packer L, Tritschler HJ, Wessel K. Neuroprotection by the metabolic antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid. Free radical biology & medicine. 1997;22(1-2):359-378.

111. Ziegler D, Reljanovic M, Mehnert H, Gries FA. Alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy in Germany: current evidence from clinical trials. Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association. 1999;107(7):421-430.

112. Moini H, Packer L, Saris NE. Antioxidant and prooxidant activities of alpha-lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. Jul 1 2002;182(1):84-90.

113. Bast A, Haenen GR. Interplay between lipoic acid and glutathione in the protection against microsomal lipid peroxidation. Biochimica et biophysica acta. Dec 16 1988;963(3):558-561.

114. Porras P, Pedrajas JR, Martinez-Galisteo E, et al. Glutaredoxins catalyze the reduction of glutathione by dihydrolipoamide with high efficiency. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. Aug 2 2002;295(5):1046-1051.

115. Schoenen J, Jacquy J, Lenaerts M. Effectiveness of high-dose riboflavin in migraine prophylaxis. A randomized controlled trial. Neurology. Feb 1998;50(2):466-470.

116. Ghyczy M, Boros M. Electrophilic methyl groups present in the diet ameliorate pathological states induced by reductive and oxidative stress: a hypothesis. The British journal of nutrition. Apr 2001;85(4):409-414.

117. Hyun SK, Jung HA, Chung HY, Choi JS. In vitro peroxynitrite scavenging activity of 6-hydroxykynurenic acid and other flavonoids from Gingko biloba yellow leaves. Archives of pharmacal research. Dec 2006;29(12):1074-1079.

118. Zizkova P, Viskupicova J, Horakova L. Pycnogenol and Ginkgo biloba extract: effect on peroxynitrite-oxidized sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase. Interdisciplinary toxicology. Dec 2010;3(4):132-136. Neural Sensitization:

119. Ahmadi-Ashtiani H, Allameh A, Rastegar H, Soleimani M, Barkhordari E. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase by silymarin in proliferating mesenchymal stem cells: comparison with glutathione modifiers. Journal of natural medicines. Jan 2012;66(1):85-94.

120. Malekinejad H, Rezabakhsh A, Rahmani F, Hobbenaghi R. Silymarin regulates the cytochrome P450 3A2 and glutathione peroxides in the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology. May 15 2012;19(7):583-590.

121. Matsunaga N, Imai S, Inokuchi Y, et al. Bilberry and its main constituents have neuroprotective effects against retinal neuronal damage in vitro and in vivo. Molecular nutrition & food research. Jul 2009;53(7):869-877.

122. Rahman MM, Ichiyanagi T, Komiyama T, Hatano Y, Konishi T. Superoxide radical- and peroxynitrite-scavenging activity of anthocyanins; structure-activity relationship and their synergism. Free radical research. Sep 2006;40(9):993-1002.

123. Cheshchevik VT, Lapshina EA, Dremza IK, et al. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. Jun 15 2012;261(3):271-279.

124. Menghini L, Leporini L, Scanu N, et al. Effect of phytochemical concentrations on biological activities of cranberry extracts. Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents. Jan-Mar 2011;25(1):27-35.

125. Cos P, De Bruyne T, Hermans N, Apers S, Berghe DV, Vlietinck AJ. Proanthocyanidins in health care: current and new trends. Current medicinal chemistry. May 2004;11(10):1345-1359.

126. Kim YJ, Yokozawa T. Modulation of oxidative stress and melanogenesis by proanthocyanidins. Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin. Jul 2009;32(7):1155-1159.

127. Piermarocchi S, Saviano S, Parisi V, et al. Carotenoids in Age-related Maculopathy Italian Study (CARMIS): two-year results of a randomized study. European journal of ophthalmology. Mar-Apr 2012;22(2):216-225.

128. Feher J, Lengyel G, Blazovics A. Oxidative stress in the liver and biliary tract diseases. Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. Supplement. 1998;228:38-46.

129. Cohen-Boulakia F, Valensi PE, Boulahdour H, et al. In vivo sequential study of skeletal muscle capillary permeability in diabetic rats: effect of anthocyanosides. Metabolism: clinical and experimental. Jul 2000;49(7):880-885.

130. Perossini M, etal. Diabetic and hypertensive retinopathy therapy with vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides: a double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Ann Ottalmol Clin Ocul. 1987;113:1173-1190.

131. Moskaug JO, Carlsen H, Myhrstad MC, Blomhoff R. Polyphenols and glutathione synthesis regulation. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Jan 2005;81(1 Suppl):277S-283S.

132. Kaneda K, Kikuchi M, Kashii S, et al. Effects of B vitamins on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in retinal cultures. European journal of pharmacology. Mar 19 1997;322(2-3):259-264.

133. Bohm F, Tinkler JH, Truscott TG. Carotenoids protect against cell membrane damage by the nitrogen dioxide radical. Nature medicine. Feb 1995;1(2):98-99.

134. Kocak-Toker N, Giris M, Tulubas F, Uysal M, Aykac-Toker G. Peroxynitrite induced decrease in Na+, K+-ATPase activity is restored by taurine. World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. Jun 21 2005;11(23):3554-3557.

135. Bagchi D, Garg A, Krohn RL, Bagchi M, Tran MX, Stohs SJ. Oxygen free radical scavenging abilities of vitamins C and E, and a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract in vitro. Research communications in molecular pathology and pharmacology. Feb 1997;95(2):179-189.

136. Banerjee B, Bagchi D. Beneficial effects of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract in the treatment of chronic pancreatitis. Digestion. 2001;63(3):203-206.

137. Mukerji SS, Katsman EA, Wilber C, Haner NA, Selman WR, Hall AK. Activin is a neuronal survival factor that is rapidly increased after transient cerebral ischemia and hypoxia in mice. Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. Jun 2007;27(6):1161-1172.

138. Higuchi A, Yonemitsu K, Koreeda A, Tsunenari S. Inhibitory activity of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) in paraquat-induced microsomal lipid peroxidation--a mechanism of protective effects of EGCg against paraquat toxicity. Toxicology. Feb 1 2003;183(1-3):143-149.

139. Alvarez E, Leiro J, Orallo F. Effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on respiratory burst of rat macrophages. International immunopharmacology. May 2002;2(6):849-855.

140. Nanjo F, Mori M, Goto K, Hara Y. Radical scavenging activity of tea catechins and their related compounds. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry. Sep 1999;63(9):1621-1623.

141. Yokozawa T, Rhyu DY, Cho EJ. (-)-Epicatechin 3-O-gallate ameliorates the damages related to peroxynitrite production by mechanisms distinct from those of other free radical inhibitors. The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology. Feb 2004;56(2):231-239.

142. Muzes G, Deak G, Lang I, Nekam K, Gergely P, Feher J. Effect of the bioflavonoid silymarin on the in vitro activity and expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme. Acta physiologica Hungarica. 1991;78(1):3-9.

143. Feher J, Lang I, Nekam K, Gergely P, Muzes G. In vivo effect of free radical scavenger hepatoprotective agents on superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in patients. The Tokai journal of experimental and clinical medicine. May 1990;15(2-3):129-134.

144. Jones M. Chronic neuropathic pain: pharmacological Interventions in New Millennium. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding. 2000(Jan/Feb 2000).

145. Allan R, Mara N. Magnesium and the acute physician. Acute medicine. 2012;11(1):3-7.

146. Mauskop A, Varughese J. Why all migraine patients should be treated with magnesium. Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996). May 2012;119(5):575-579.

147. El Idrissi A, Trenkner E. Taurine as a modulator of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Neurochemical research. Jan 2004;29(1):189-197.

148. Sulaiman SA, Suliman FE, Barghouthi S. Kinetic studies on the inhibition of GABA-T by gamma-vinyl GABA and taurine. Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal chemistry. Aug 2003;18(4):297-301.

149. del Olmo N, Bustamante J, del Rio RM, Solis JM. Taurine activates GABA(A) but not GABA(B) receptors in rat hippocampal CA1 area. Brain research. May 12 2000;864(2):298-307.

150. Prakash YS. Gamma-aminobutyric acid: something old, something new for bronchodilation. Anesthesiology. Apr 2009;110(4):696-697.

151. Wang HS, Kuo MF, Chou ML, et al. Pyridoxal phosphate is better than pyridoxine for controlling idiopathic intractable epilepsy. Archives of disease in childhood. May 2005;90(5):512-515.

152. Guyton A, Hall J. Textbook of Medical Physiology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company; 1996.

153. Trujillo M, Folkes L, Bartesaghi S, Kalyanaraman B, Wardman P, Radi R. Peroxynitrite-derived carbonate and nitrogen dioxide radicals readily react with lipoic and dihydrolipoic acid. Free radical biology & medicine. Jul 15 2005;39(2):279-288.

154. Dlugosz A, Sawicka E. The chemoprotective effect of coenzyme Q on lipids in the paint and lacquer industry workers. International journal of occupational medicine and environmental health. 1998;11(2):153-163.

155. Sun M, Qian F, Shen W, et al. Mitochondrial nutrients stimulate performance and mitochondrial biogenesis in exhaustively exercised rats. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. Apr 21 2011.

156. Tarasov Iu A, Sheibak VM, Moiseenok AG. [Adrenal cortex functional activity in pantothenate deficiency and the administration of the vitamin or its derivatives]. Voprosy pitaniia. Jul-Aug 1985(4):51-54.

157. Murray R, Granner.DK, Mayes P, Rodwell V. Harper's Biochemistry. 23rd ed. Norwalk, CT1993.

158. Mendel RR, Kruse T. Cell biology of molybdenum in plants and humans. Biochimica et biophysica acta. Sep 2012;1823(9):1568-1579.

159. Rajapakshe A, Meyers KT, Berry RE, Tollin G, Enemark JH. Intramolecular electron transfer in sulfite-oxidizing enzymes: probing the role of aromatic amino acids. Journal of biological inorganic chemistry : JBIC : a publication of the Society of Biological Inorganic Chemistry. Mar 2012;17(3):345-352.

160. Tutuncu B, Kucukatay V, Arslan S, Sahin B, Semiz A, Sen A. Alteration of drug metabolizing enzymes in sulphite oxidase deficiency. Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition. Jul 2012;51(1):50-54.

161. Gurr M, James A. Lipid Biochemistry. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Chapman and Hall; 1980.

162. Vaisman N, Kaysar N, Zaruk-Adasha Y, et al. Correlation between changes in blood fatty acid composition and visual sustained attention performance in children with inattention: effect of dietary n-3 fatty acids containing phospholipids. The American journal of clinical nutrition. May 2008;87(5):1170-1180.

163. Komatsu W, Ishihara K, Murata M, Saito H, Shinohara K. Docosahexaenoic acid suppresses nitric oxide production and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in interferon-gamma plus lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages by inhibiting the oxidative stress. Free radical biology & medicine. Apr 15 2003;34(8):1006-1016.

164. Ohata T, Fukuda K, Takahashi M, Sugimura T, Wakabayashi K. Suppression of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage cells by omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Japanese journal of cancer research : Gann. Mar 1997;88(3):234-237.

165. Takahashi M, Tsuboyama-Kasaoka N, Nakatani T, et al. Fish oil feeding alters liver gene expressions to defend against PPARalpha activation and ROS production. American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology. Feb 2002;282(2):G338-348.

166. Vakhapova V, Cohen T, Richter Y, Herzog Y, Korczyn AD. Phosphatidylserine containing omega-3 fatty acids may improve memory abilities in non-demented elderly with memory complaints: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders. 2010;29(5):467-474.

167. Lee B, Sur BJ, Han JJ, et al. Krill phosphatidylserine improves learning and memory in Morris water maze in aged rats. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry. Jun 2 2010.

168. Sin B, Togias A. Pathophysiology of allergic and nonallergic rhinitis. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society. Mar 2011;8(1):106-114.

169. Anderson SE, Ham JE, Munson AE. Irritancy and sensitization potential of glyoxylic acid. Journal of immunotoxicology. Apr 2008;5(2):93-98.

170. Anderson SE, Franko J, Jackson LG, Wells JR, Ham JE, Meade BJ. Irritancy and allergic responses induced by exposure to the indoor air chemical 4-oxopentanal. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. Jun 2012;127(2):371-381.

171. Bao Y, Chen H, Hu Y, et al. Combination effects of chronic cadmium exposure and gamma-irradiation on the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of peripheral blood lymphocytes and bone marrow cells in rats. Mutation research. Mar 18 2012;743(1-2):67-74.

172. Borchers MT, Wesselkamper SC, Harris NL, et al. CD8+ T cells contribute to macrophage accumulation and airspace enlargement following repeated irritant exposure. Experimental and molecular pathology. Dec 2007;83(3):301-310.

173. Dearman RJ, Betts CJ, Humphreys N, et al. Chemical allergy: considerations for the practical application of cytokine profiling. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. Feb 2003;71(2):137-145.

174. Fukuyama T, Tajima Y, Ueda H, Hayashi K, Kosaka T. Prior exposure to immunosuppressive organophosphorus or organochlorine compounds aggravates the T(H)1- and T(H)2-type allergy caused by topical sensitization to 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and trimellitic anhydride. Journal of immunotoxicology. Jun 2011;8(2):170-182.

175. Gerberick GF, Cruse LW, Ryan CA, et al. Use of a B cell marker (B220) to discriminate between allergens and irritants in the local lymph node assay. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. Aug 2002;68(2):420-428.

176. Godderis L, De Raedt K, Tabish AM, et al. Epigenetic changes in lymphocytes of solvent-exposed individuals. Epigenomics. Jun 2012;4(3):269-277.

177. Goutet M, Pepin E, Langonne I, Huguet N, Ban M. Identification of contact and respiratory sensitizers using flow cytometry. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. Jun 15 2005;205(3):259-270.

178. Li B, Niu Y, Liu S, et al. A change in CD3gamma, CD3delta, CD3, and CD3zeta gene expression in T-lymphocytes from benzene-exposed and benzene-poisoned workers. Journal of immunotoxicology. Apr-Jun 2012;9(2):160-167.

179. Thompson CM, Subramaniam RP, Grafstrom RC. Mechanistic and dose considerations for supporting adverse pulmonary physiology in response to formaldehyde. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. Dec 15 2008;233(3):355-359.

Back to: New Treatment for Chemical Injury and Chemical Sensitivity

Home-

Copyright 2005-2009, Chemical Injury.NET  All Rights Reserved

[HOME] [HazardousSubstances] [PreventingChemicalInjury] [Neural Sensitization] [Neural Sensitization: The Medical  Key to Treatment] [Neural Sensitization: Treating Chemical Injury Step by Step] [MedicalCare] [EnvironmentalControls] [ChemicalUpdates] [CorporateCrimes] [VideosAndMedia] [Biosketch] [SearchControls] [SiteMap] [Test Page]